Heart Disease in Children
Adult Structural Heart Disease
Dr. ARITRA MUKHERJI
MBBS MD FNB
Dr. Aritra Mukherji is an eminent Pediatric Cardiologist with an experience of 7 years. He has profound knowledge of dealing with various forms of congenital and acquired heart diseases in children. He is equally adept in clinical as well as invasive cardiology and has performed numerous simple as well as complex cardiac interventions in children including newborns. He regularly performs Fetal echocardiograms for pre-natal detection of congenital heart diseases. Management of sick children in the cardiac ICU also forms a part of his growing repertoire.
Echocardiography (an echocardiogram, echo or heart ultrasound) is the procedure to generate moving images of the heart. It provides an in-depth assessment of various structural and functional attributes of the heart. Echocardiograms use high-frequency sound waves that are reflected off the surfaces of the heart to create a picture on a TV monitor. Images are generated by a transducer (like a microphone) which is placed on the chest with warmed gel. Two-dimensional, colour-enhanced images then appear on the screen.
Trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an invasive procedure like endoscopy where a long slender probe (like a camera) is gradually introduced per-mouth and placed into the feeding tube behind the heart. This probe then emits sound waves that are then reflected from the heart to create an image on the monitor. Being very close to the heart TEE produces excellent images with enhanced resolution that often helps in delineating structures which would other-wise not be visible by an echocardiogram done from chest.
Fetal Echocardiography is a relatively newer modality of obstetric investigation which have come into vogue over the past few years. An experienced fetal cardiologist scans the heart of the baby using special probes through the maternal abdomen. Congenital heart disease affects nearly 1-2 % of all fetuses. Incidence of serious heart disease is far higher compared to any other congenital defect or genetic syndrome like Down’s Syndrome. Thus it is essential to scan the fetal heart during pregnancy.
Cardiac catheterization is an invasive procedure of accessing the heart and major great arteries by passing catheters from various peripheral vessels. In the previous era the main purpose of cardiac catheterization was diagnostic angiography and imaging. In the present era it is used for both diagnostic and various types of interventional procedures in children.